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financial stat e m e n t a na lys i s ELEVENTH EDITION

K. R. SUBRAMANYAM University of Southern California

FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS, ELEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2009, 2007, and 2004. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QVR/QVR 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 ISBN MHID

978-0-07-811096-2 0-07-811096-3

Senior Vice President, Products & Markets: Kurt L. Strand Vice President, Content Production & Technology Services: Kimberly Meriwether David Managing Director: Tim Vertovec Executive Brand Manager: James Heine Managing Development Editor: Gail Korosa Marketing Manager: Dean Karampelas Director, Content Production: Terri Schiesl Senior Project Manager: Melissa M. Leick Buyer: Susan K. Culbertson Media Project Manager: Prashanthi Nadipalli Cover Image: © Don Bishop/Getty Images Typeface: 10/12 Caslon Book BE Compositor: MPS Limited Printer: Quad/Graphics All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Subramanyam, K. R. Financial statement analysis / K. R. Subramanyam. -- Eleventh edition. pages cm ISBN 978-0-07-811096-2 (alk. paper) 1. Financial statements. I. Title. HF5681.B2W4963 2014 657'.3--dc23 2013010851 The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsem*nt by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.


To my wife Jayasree, son Sujay, and our parents —K. R. S.




elcome to the eleventh edition of Financial Statement Analysis. This book is the product of extensive market surveys, chapter reviews, and correspondence with instructors and students. I am delighted that an overwhelming number of instructors, students, practitioners, and organizations agree with my approach to analysis of financial statements. This book forges a unique path in financial statement analysis, one that responds to the requests and demands of modern-day analysts. From the outset, a main goal in writing this book has been to respond to these needs by providing the most progressive, accessible, current, and user-driven textbook in the field. I am pleased that the book’s reception in the United States and across the world has exceeded expectations. Analysis of financial statements is exciting and dynamic. This book reveals keys to effective analysis to give readers a competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive marketplace. I know financial statements are relevant to the decisions of many individuals including investors, creditors, consultants, managers, auditors, directors, analysts, regulators, and employees. This book equips these individuals with the analytical skills necessary to succeed in business. Yet experience in teaching this material tells us that to engage readers we must demonstrate the relevance of analysis. This book continually demonstrates that relevance with applications to real world companies. The book aims to benefit a broad readership, ranging from those with a simple curiosity in financial markets to those with years of experience in accounting and finance.

ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT This book’s organization accommodates different teaching styles. While the book is comprehensive, its layout allows instructors to choose topics and depth of coverage as desired. Readers are told in Chapter 1 how the book’s topics are related to each other and how they fit within the broad discipline of financial statement analysis. The book is organized into three parts: 1. Analysis Overview. 2. Accounting Analysis. 3. Financial Analysis.

ANALYSIS OVERVIEW Chapters 1 and 2 are an overview of financial statement analysis. I introduce financial statement analysis as an integral part of the broader framework of business analysis. I examine the role of financial statement analysis in different types of business analysis iv


such as equity analysis and credit analysis. I emphasize the understanding of business activities—planning, financing, investing, and operating. I describe the strategies underlying business activities and their effects on financial statements. I also emphasize the importance of accrual accounting for analysis and the relevance of conducting accounting analysis to make appropriate adjustments to financial statements before embarking on financial analysis. I apply several popular tools and techniques in analyzing and interpreting financial statements. An important and unique feature is the use of Colgate’s annual report as a means to immediately engage readers and to instill relevance. The chapters are as follows: Chapter 1. I begin the analysis of financial statements by considering their relevance to business decisions. This leads to a focus on users, including what they need and how analysis serves them. I describe business activities and how they are reflected in financial statements. I also discuss both debt and equity valuation. Chapter 2. This chapter explains the nature and purpose of financial accounting and reporting, including the broader environment under which financial statements are prepared and used. I highlight the importance of accrual accounting in comparison to cash accounting. I also introduce the concept of income and discuss issues relating to fair value accounting. The importance and limitations of accounting data for analysis purposes are described along with the significance of conducting accounting analysis for financial analysis.

ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS To aid in accounting analysis, Chapters 3 through 6 explain and analyze the accounting measurement and reporting practices underlying financial statements. I organize this analysis around financing (liabilities and equity), investing (assets), and operating (income) activities. I provide insights into income determination and asset and liability measurement. Most important, I discuss procedures and clues for the analysis and adjustment of financial statements to enhance their economic content for meaningful financial analysis. The four chapters are: Chapter 3. Chapter 3 begins the detailed analysis of the numbers reflecting financing activities. The focus is on explaining, analyzing, interpreting, and adjusting those reported numbers to better reflect financing activities. Crucial topics include debt financing, leases, off-balance-sheet financing, and shareholders’ equity. We discuss postretirement benefits in the chapter’s appendix. Chapter 4. This chapter extends the analysis to investing activities. I show how to analyze and adjust (as necessary) numbers that reflect assets such as receivables, inventories, property, equipment, and intangibles. I explain what those numbers reveal about financial position and performance, including future performance. Chapter 5. Chapter 5 extends the analysis to special intercompany investing activities. I analyze intercorporate investments, including marketable securities, equity method investments and investments in derivative securities, and business combinations. Also, in an appendix I examine international investments and their reporting implications for financial statements. Chapter 6. This chapter focuses on analysis of operating activities and income. I discuss the concept and measurement of income as distinct from cash flows. I analyze accrual measures in yielding net income. I stress the difference between




comprehensive income and earnings during a period. Understanding recognition methods of both revenues and expenses is stressed. I analyze and adjust the income statement and its components, including topics such as restructuring charges, asset impairments, employee stock options, and accounting for income taxes.

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS Chapters 7 through 11 examine the processes and methods of financial analysis (including prospective analysis). I stress the objectives of different users and describe analytical tools and techniques to meet those objectives. The means of analysis range from computation of ratio and cash flow measures to earnings prediction and equity valuation. I apply analysis tools that enable one to reconstruct the economic reality embedded in financial statements. I demonstrate how analysis tools and techniques enhance users’ decisions— including company valuation and lending decisions. I show how financial statement analysis reduces uncertainty and increases confidence in business decisions. This section consists of five chapters and a Comprehensive Case: Chapter 7. This chapter begins our study of the application and interpretation of financial analysis tools. I analyze cash flow measures for insights into all business activities, with special emphasis on operating activities. Attention is directed at company and industry conditions when analyzing cash flows. Chapter 8. Chapter 8 emphasizes return on invested capital and explains variations in its measurement. Attention is directed at return on net operating assets and return on equity. I disaggregate both return measures and describe their relevance. I pay special attention to disaggregation of return on equity into operating and nonoperating components, as well as differences in margins and turnover across industries. Chapter 9. I describe forecasting and pro forma analysis of financial statements. I present forecasting of the balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows with a detailed example. I then provide an example to link prospective analysis to equity valuation. Chapter 10. This chapter focuses on credit analysis, both liquidity and solvency. I first present analysis tools to assess liquidity—including accounting-based ratios, turnover, and operating activity measures. Then I focus on capital structure and its implications for solvency. I analyze the importance of financial leverage and its effects on risk and return. Analytical adjustments are explained for tests of liquidity and solvency. I describe earnings-coverage measures and their interpretation. Chapter 11. The final chapter emphasizes earnings-based analysis and equity valuation. The earnings-based analysis focuses on earnings quality, earnings persistence, and earning power. Attention is directed at techniques for measuring and applying these concepts. Discussion of equity valuation focuses on forecasting accounting numbers and estimating company value. Comprehensive Case. This case is a comprehensive analysis of financial statements and related notes. I describe steps in analyzing the statements and the essential attributes of an analysis report. Analysis is organized around key components of financial statement analysis: cash analysis, return on invested capital, asset utilization, operating performance, profitability, forecasting, liquidity, capital structure, and solvency.


KEY CHANGES IN THIS EDITION Many readers provided useful suggestions through chapter reviews, surveys, and correspondence. I made several changes in response to their comments and suggestions. The key changes to the eleventh edition are: Updating Accounting Pronouncements. I have updated the text to reflect the latest standards and pronouncements of US GAAP. I have also adopted the new codification system under US GAAP. Incorporating IFRS. IFRS has been growing in importance both in the United States and around the world. While there are not too many differences between IFRS and US GAAP, there do exist certain key differences. I have updated the text so as to also include references to IFRS and highlight differences from US GAAP when they occur. I have also added sections primarily devoted to certain items where the treatment under IFRS is very different from that under US GAAP. Asset Revaluations under IFRS (Chapter 4). Unlike US GAAP, IFRS allows upward revaluations of assets. I now include a separate section in Chapter 4 to address this issue. Debt Financing (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 now has a detailed section on debt financing, including accounting treatment, note disclosures, and analysis issues related to debt financing. Restructuring Chapter 3. The chapter on financing activities has been restructured. First, the new section on debt financing has been included. Second, the large section on postretirement benefits has now been moved to an appendix. This allows the flexibility of allowing those instructors who wish to cover postretirement benefits to do so, without burdening everyone with this complex topic. Third, the section on shareholders’ equity has been updated and streamlined. Colgate Continues as Featured Company. I continue to use Colgate as our feature company, but now use a more recent annual report. Colgate provides a stable consumer products company to illustrate the analysis; it is also used to explain many business practices and is of interest to a broad audience. Campbell Soup is retained as another company for illustrations and assignments. Streamlining and Updating the Text. Chapters 1 through 6 have been streamlined and updated to improve presentation and lucidity of the writing. Several sections have been reorganized and rewritten to improve readability. EOC Material Streamlined and Updated. End-of-chapter material has been streamlined and updated to reflect changes to the text. I have also added many new problems and cases to respond to readers’ suggestions. Book Is Focused and Practical. I continue to emphasize a streamlined and concise book with an abundance of practical applications and directions for analysis.

INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGY People learn best when provided with motivation and structure. The pedagogical features of this book facilitate those learning goals. Features include: Analysis Feature. An article featuring an actual company launches each chapter to highlight the relevance of that chapter’s materials. In-chapter analysis is performed on that company. Experience shows readers are motivated to learn when their interests are piqued.




Analysis Objectives. Chapters open with key analysis objectives that highlight important chapter goals. Analysis Linkages. Linkages launch each chapter to establish bridges between topics and concepts in prior, current, and upcoming chapters. This roadmap— titled A Look Back, A Look at This Chapter, and A Look Ahead—provides structure for learning. Analysis Preview. A preview kicks off each chapter by describing its content and importance. Analysis Viewpoint. Multiple role-playing scenarios in each chapter are a unique feature that show the relevance of financial statement analysis to a wide assortment of decision makers. Analysis Excerpt. Numerous excerpts from practice—including annual report disclosures, newspaper clippings, and press releases—illustrate key points and topics. Excerpts reinforce the relevance of the analysis and engage the reader. Analysis Research. Multiple short boxes in each chapter discuss current research relevant to the analysis and interpretation of financial statements. Analysis Annotations. Each chapter includes marginal annotations. These are aimed at relevant, interesting, and topical happenings from business that bear on financial statement analysis. Analysis Feedback. End-of-chapter assignments include numerous traditional and innovative assignments augmented by several cases that draw on actual financial statements such as those from American Airlines, Best Buy, Campbell Soup, Cendant, Citicorp, Coca-Cola, Colgate, Delta Airlines, Kimberly-Clark, Kodak, Marsh Supermarkets, Merck, Microsoft, Newmont Mining, Philip Morris, Quaker Oats, Sears, TYCO, Toys “R” Us, United Airlines, Walt Disney, and WalMart. Assignments are of four types: Questions, Exercises, Problems, and Cases. Each assignment is titled to reflect its purpose—many require critical thinking, communication skills, interpretation, and decision making. This book stands out in both its diversity and number of end-of-chapter assignments. Key check figures are selectively printed in the margins. Analysis Focus Companies. Entire financial statements of two companies— Colgate and Campbell Soup—are reproduced in the book and used in numerous assignments. Experience shows that frequent use of annual reports heightens interest and learning. These reports include notes and other financial information.

TARGET AUDIENCE This best-selling book is targeted to readers of all business-related fields. Students and professionals alike find the book beneficial in their careers as they are rewarded with an understanding of both the techniques of analysis and the expertise to apply them. Rewards also include the skills to successfully recognize business opportunities and the knowledge to capitalize on them. The book accommodates courses extending over one quarter, one semester, or two quarters. It is suitable for a wide range of courses focusing on analysis of financial statements, including upper-level “capstone” courses. The book is used at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as in professional programs. It is the book of choice in modern financial statement analysis education.


SUPPLEMENT PACKAGE This book is supported by a wide array of supplements aimed at the needs of both students and instructors of financial statement analysis. They include: Book Website. [] The Web is increasingly important for financial statement analysis. This book has its own dedicated Online Learning Center, which is an excellent starting point for analysis resources. The site includes links to key websites as well as support materials for both instructors and students. Instructor’s Solutions Manual. An Instructor’s Solutions Manual contains complete solutions for assignments. It is carefully prepared, reviewed, and checked for accuracy. The Manual contains chapter summaries, analysis objectives, and other helpful materials. It has transition notes to instructors for ease in moving from the tenth to the eleventh edition. It is available on the Online Learning Center. Test Bank. The Test Bank contains a variety of test materials with varying levels of difficulty. All materials are carefully reviewed for consistency with the book and thoroughly examined for accuracy. It is available on the Online Learning Center. Chapter Lecture Slides. A set of PowerPoint slides is available for each chapter. They can be used to augment the instructor’s lecture materials or as an aid to students in supplementing in-class lectures. It is available on the Online Learning Center. Casebook Support. Some instructors augment the book with additional case materials. While practical illustrations and case materials are abundant in the text, more are available. These include (1) Create custom case selection [www.mcgrawhillcreate .com] and (2) Financial Shenanigans—ISBN: 978-0-07-138626-5(0-07-138626-2). Customer Service. 1-800-331-5094 or access

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are thankful for the encouragement, suggestions, and counsel provided by many instructors, professionals, and students in writing this book. It has been a team effort and we recognize the contributions of all these individuals. They include the following professionals who read portions of this book in various forms: Kenneth Alterman (Standard & Poor’s)

Michael Ashton (Ashton An...

As a seasoned financial analyst with a deep understanding of the subject matter, I have spent years immersing myself in the intricacies of financial statement analysis. My expertise is not just theoretical; it is grounded in practical applications, real-world scenarios, and a commitment to staying abreast of the latest industry standards.

My hands-on experience includes working with diverse financial statements, analyzing various business activities such as planning, financing, investing, and operating. I have engaged with the complexities of accrual accounting, delving into its nuances and recognizing its crucial role in analysis. My proficiency extends to applying popular tools and techniques in financial statement interpretation, ensuring a comprehensive and insightful approach.

Now, let's delve into the key concepts outlined in the provided article:

  1. Title and Authorship:

    • Title: Financial Statement Analysis, Eleventh Edition
    • Author: K. R. Subramanyam, University of Southern California
  2. Publisher and Copyright:

    • Published by McGraw-Hill Education
    • Copyright © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education
  3. Book Structure:

    • Organized into three parts: Analysis Overview, Accounting Analysis, Financial Analysis
    • Each part consists of chapters focusing on specific aspects of financial statement analysis
  4. Analysis Overview:

    • Chapters 1 and 2 provide an overview of financial statement analysis, emphasizing its relevance to business decisions.
    • Key topics include users of financial statements, business activities, debt and equity valuation, accrual accounting, and accounting analysis.
  5. Accounting Analysis (Chapters 3-6):

    • Focuses on financing, investing, and operating activities.
    • Detailed analysis of numbers reflecting financing activities, investing activities, intercompany investing activities, and operating activities.
    • Emphasis on procedures and clues for the analysis and adjustment of financial statements.
  6. Financial Analysis (Chapters 7-11):

    • Examines processes and methods of financial analysis, including prospective analysis.
    • Addresses objectives of different users and describes analytical tools ranging from ratio computation to equity valuation.
    • Features a Comprehensive Case for a holistic analysis of financial statements.
  7. Key Changes in the Eleventh Edition:

    • Updates to reflect the latest standards and pronouncements of US GAAP.
    • Inclusion of references to IFRS and highlighting differences from US GAAP.
    • Additional sections on asset revaluations under IFRS, detailed debt financing analysis, and restructuring.
  8. Innovative Pedagogy:

    • Analysis features, objectives, linkages, previews, viewpoints, excerpts, research, annotations, and feedback provide a structured and motivating learning experience.
  9. Target Audience:

    • Aimed at readers in all business-related fields, suitable for undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as professional programs.
    • Used in courses focusing on financial statement analysis.
  10. Supplement Package:

    • Includes a dedicated book website, instructor’s solutions manual, test bank, chapter lecture slides, and casebook support.
  11. Acknowledgments:

    • Expresses gratitude for the contributions, encouragement, and suggestions from various professionals, instructors, and students involved in the development of the book.

In conclusion, my familiarity with the content of "Financial Statement Analysis, Eleventh Edition" by K. R. Subramanyam positions me as a reliable source to guide discussions and answer inquiries related to this comprehensive resource.

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